After you admired your first Timber Frame Home or Barn, and became more interested in the craft of Timber Framing and considered possibly constructing one of these beautiful structures for yourself, you probably encountered a lot of terms that you may not have heard before.
In this post, we’ve compiled a list of common Timber Framing terms and definitions so that whether you’ve loved Timber Frames for years or you’re new to this method of building, we can all be speaking the same language.
Timber Frame: A structure constructed using heavy timber that is fitted together, or joined, with mortise and tenon joinery. Timber frames are more complicated and have more intricate joinery than post & beam structures.
Post & Beam: Like timber frames, post and beam structures are constructed with heavy timber or logs, but are more simple, using just posts, beams, and rafters.
Timber: A squared off piece of wood that is used structurally.
Bent: A pre-assembled structural framework of beams.
Post: The primary vertical timbers in a timber frame.
Beam: The primary horizontal support timbers in a timber frame.
Rafters: Series of timbers that are used to support roofs.
Brace: A diagonal piece of timber used to support beams.
Joist: Horizontal timbers used to support floors and ceilings.
Purlin: A horizontal roof beam that supports rafters and spans the distance between gable ends.
Chord: The bottom horizontal timber in a truss.
Gable: The triangular upper part of a wall that connects to a pitched roof.
Collar Tie: A horizontal beam between roof rafters that reduces spreading or sagging of the rafters.
Tension Tie: A tension tie is a steel rod that acts as the bottom chord for a truss and allows for large, open, arched truss designs because the rod carries structural loads.
Post Base: The connection between the bottom of the post and the concrete.
Glulam: Layers of 1 or 1-1/2 inch boards that are glued together to form a beam.
Hand Hewn: A beam that has been handcrafted with an adze and a slick to get a scored, decorative texture.
Rough Hewn: Beams that have been reclaimed from old mill buildings and barns.
Rough Sawn: Timber that has not been sanded or smoothed, but is used as originally cut.
Shake: Shake is the separation of the rings in a piece of wood that occurs as the wood dries. Usually found in Hemlock.
Checking: Checking is a long crack that appears as the sapwood of a timber shrinks around the heartwood over time. Checking is not a structural problem and usually occurs only on one or two sides of a beam.
Adze: A tool with a long wooden handle with a steel plate at a right angle used to make decorative cuts in heavy timber.
Slick: A tool used to clean the surface of hand hewn beams.
Truss: A structural framework used to support external loads.
King Post: A truss with a center vertical beam with an angled support beam on each side of the vertical beam.
Queen Post: A truss with two vertical beams that each have an outer angled support beam.
Scissor: A truss shaped like scissors with bottom chords that cross each other.
Hammer Beam: A truss with short beams that extend from and transfer loads to the wall and roof. Because the truss transfers its load to the outer walls and roof, it is able to have an open, arch design. The hammer beam truss design originated in old European cathedrals.
Joinery: Two or more timbers that are connected. The combined components of a timber frame.
Mortise: A notch, hole, or cut in a piece of wood into which a tenon is fit to join two timbers together. This is the female part of a joint.
Tenon: The cut end of a timber that fits into a mortise to join two pieces of timber together. This is the male part of a joint.
Dovetail: A mortise and tenon joint shaped like a dove’s tail.
Gusset: A metal plate attached to one or both sides of a joint to strengthen the joint.
There are, of course, many more timber frame terms. After all, this craft has been around for thousands of years. Have questions about any of these terms or about Timber Framing? Submit a question on our Ask the Experts page.
Holy Moly, great post Margaux, wow! Timber terms all over the place 🙂
Thanks Sandy! So many, but I’m just realizing I left out the terms “thingy” and “whatsie.” Those can be useful too 🙂
Haha, of course….next time thingy and whatsie need to be included!
And don’t forget “swadge”. As in, “That needs to be moved over just a swadge.”
“Swadge” was coined about 20 years ago when I was helping some friends raise a small frame in Upstate New York.
To get technical, a swadge can be anywhere from an 1/8th to a 1/4 of an inch. Very handy term!
I like it!
Thank you Margaux, very useful!!
Thank you for stopping by our blog! Happy to hear this post was useful.
adze: usually used for squaring a timber by hand. (watch your toes)
forgot, those “decorative cuts” are the normal with this tool
Thank you so much for your time in putting this together. I hope to work on a timber framing project soon.
One of the most distinctive characteristics of a timber frame is the unique joinery that holds the timbers together.
Timber frames a lot stronger and long lasting, I know of a house that’s centuries old with timber support frames
Timber that has not been sanded or smoothed, but is used as originally cut.
Great article-super interesting thanks
Thanks for sharing this great article here.
What an awesome list of terms! Thanks
great list of terms. everything was explained very well
Great article you shared here. Keep it up!
Very useful information, This will help a lot to explain to customers and new comers, thanks!!
Excellent show of knowledge on timber frames
Thanks for the info!!!